As Russia launches a full-scale invasion of Ukraine, experts at Harvard discuss Russia’s motivations and potential next moves, as well as steps the United States should take to deter Russia from taking aim at other European nations.

Thomas Nichols, University Professor at the U.S. Naval War College and an instructor at Harvard Extension School, noted that Putin may think twice before attacking nearby NATO nations, Poland, Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia. “If he threatens those countries, he’s threatening NATO, and he’s declaring World War III,” Nichols stated. “As reckless as Putin has become, he’s not that reckless.”